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pack.c

//%Header {
/*****************************************************************************
 *
 * File: src/MushRuby/pack.c (ruby)
 *
 * This file has been taken the ruby distribution and may have been modified.
 * For more information on the original see http://www.ruby-lang.org/.
 *
 * This file may contain original work and modifications by Andy Southgate.
 * In regard to these the author and his employer (Mushware Limited)
 * irrevocably waive all of their copyright rights vested in this particular
 * version of this file to the furthest extent permitted.  The author and
 * Mushware Limited also irrevocably waive any and all of their intellectual
 * property rights arising from said file and its modification and/or additions
 * that would otherwise restrict the rights of any party to use and/or
 * distribute the use of, the techniques and methods used herein.  A written
 * waiver can be obtained via http://www.mushware.com/.  This waiver does not
 * affect the rights of the original author or authors.
 *
 * This software carries NO WARRANTY of any kind from Andy Southgate or
 * Mushware Limited.
 *
 ****************************************************************************/
//%Header } 3wODG95af2CAMNVhcT7xUA
/**********************************************************************

  pack.c -

 
  $Date: 2006/04/21 00:10:44 $
  created at: Thu Feb 10 15:17:05 JST 1994

  Copyright (C) 1993-2003 Yukihiro Matsumoto

**********************************************************************/

#include "ruby.h"
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <ctype.h>

#define SIZE16 2
#define SIZE32 4

#if SIZEOF_SHORT != 2 || SIZEOF_LONG != 4
# define NATINT_PACK
#endif

#ifdef NATINT_PACK
# define OFF16B(p) ((char*)(p) + (natint?0:(sizeof(short) - SIZE16)))
# define OFF32B(p) ((char*)(p) + (natint?0:(sizeof(long) - SIZE32)))
# define NATINT_LEN(type,len) (natint?sizeof(type):(len))
# ifdef WORDS_BIGENDIAN
#   define OFF16(p) OFF16B(p)
#   define OFF32(p) OFF32B(p)
# endif
# define NATINT_HTOVS(x) (natint?htovs(x):htov16(x))
# define NATINT_HTOVL(x) (natint?htovl(x):htov32(x))
# define NATINT_HTONS(x) (natint?htons(x):hton16(x))
# define NATINT_HTONL(x) (natint?htonl(x):hton32(x))
#else
# define NATINT_LEN(type,len) sizeof(type)
# define NATINT_HTOVS(x) htovs(x)
# define NATINT_HTOVL(x) htovl(x)
# define NATINT_HTONS(x) htons(x)
# define NATINT_HTONL(x) htonl(x)
#endif

#ifndef OFF16
# define OFF16(p) (char*)(p)
# define OFF32(p) (char*)(p)
#endif
#ifndef OFF16B
# define OFF16B(p) (char*)(p)
# define OFF32B(p) (char*)(p)
#endif

#define define_swapx(x, xtype)            \
static xtype                        \
TOKEN_PASTE(swap,x)(z)              \
    xtype z;                        \
{                             \
    xtype r;                        \
    xtype *zp;                      \
    unsigned char *s, *t;           \
    int i;                    \
                              \
    zp = malloc(sizeof(xtype));           \
    *zp = z;                        \
    s = (unsigned char*)zp;         \
    t = malloc(sizeof(xtype));            \
    for (i=0; i<sizeof(xtype); i++) {     \
      t[sizeof(xtype)-i-1] = s[i];  \
    }                         \
    r = *(xtype *)t;                \
    free(t);                        \
    free(zp);                       \
    return r;                       \
}

#ifndef swap16
#define swap16(x) ((((x)&0xFF)<<8) | (((x)>>8)&0xFF))
#endif
#if SIZEOF_SHORT == 2
#define swaps(x)  swap16(x)
#else
#if SIZEOF_SHORT == 4
#define swaps(x)  ((((x)&0xFF)<<24) \
                  |(((x)>>24)&0xFF) \
                  |(((x)&0x0000FF00)<<8)  \
                  |(((x)&0x00FF0000)>>8)  )
#else
define_swapx(s,short)
#endif
#endif

#ifndef swap32
#define swap32(x) ((((x)&0xFF)<<24) \
                  |(((x)>>24)&0xFF) \
                  |(((x)&0x0000FF00)<<8)  \
                  |(((x)&0x00FF0000)>>8)  )
#endif
#if SIZEOF_LONG == 4
#define swapl(x)  swap32(x)
#else
#if SIZEOF_LONG == 8
#define swapl(x)        ((((x)&0x00000000000000FF)<<56)     \
                  |(((x)&0xFF00000000000000)>>56)     \
                  |(((x)&0x000000000000FF00)<<40)     \
                  |(((x)&0x00FF000000000000)>>40)     \
                  |(((x)&0x0000000000FF0000)<<24)     \
                  |(((x)&0x0000FF0000000000)>>24)     \
                  |(((x)&0x00000000FF000000)<<8)      \
                  |(((x)&0x000000FF00000000)>>8))
#else
define_swapx(l,long)
#endif
#endif

#if SIZEOF_FLOAT == 4
#if SIZEOF_LONG == 4    /* SIZEOF_FLOAT == 4 == SIZEOF_LONG */
#define swapf(x)  swapl(x)
#define FLOAT_SWAPPER   unsigned long
#else
#if SIZEOF_SHORT == 4   /* SIZEOF_FLOAT == 4 == SIZEOF_SHORT */
#define swapf(x)  swaps(x)
#define FLOAT_SWAPPER   unsigned short
#else /* SIZEOF_FLOAT == 4 but undivide by known size of int */
define_swapx(f,float)
#endif      /* #if SIZEOF_SHORT == 4 */
#endif      /* #if SIZEOF_LONG == 4 */
#else /* SIZEOF_FLOAT != 4 */
define_swapx(f,float)
#endif      /* #if SIZEOF_FLOAT == 4 */

#if SIZEOF_DOUBLE == 8
#if SIZEOF_LONG == 8    /* SIZEOF_DOUBLE == 8 == SIZEOF_LONG */
#define swapd(x)  swapl(x)
#define DOUBLE_SWAPPER  unsigned long
#else
#if SIZEOF_LONG == 4    /* SIZEOF_DOUBLE == 8 && 4 == SIZEOF_LONG */
static double
swapd(d)
    const double d;
{
    double dtmp = d;
    unsigned long utmp[2];
    unsigned long utmp0;

    utmp[0] = 0; utmp[1] = 0;
    memcpy(utmp,&dtmp,sizeof(double));
    utmp0 = utmp[0];
    utmp[0] = swapl(utmp[1]);
    utmp[1] = swapl(utmp0);
    memcpy(&dtmp,utmp,sizeof(double));
    return dtmp;
}
#else
#if SIZEOF_SHORT == 4   /* SIZEOF_DOUBLE == 8 && 4 == SIZEOF_SHORT */
static double
swapd(d)
    const double d;
{
    double dtmp = d;
    unsigned short utmp[2];
    unsigned short utmp0;

    utmp[0] = 0; utmp[1] = 0;
    memcpy(utmp,&dtmp,sizeof(double));
    utmp0 = utmp[0];
    utmp[0] = swaps(utmp[1]);
    utmp[1] = swaps(utmp0);
    memcpy(&dtmp,utmp,sizeof(double));
    return dtmp;
}
#else /* SIZEOF_DOUBLE == 8 but undivied by known size of int */
define_swapx(d, double)
#endif      /* #if SIZEOF_SHORT == 4 */
#endif      /* #if SIZEOF_LONG == 4 */
#endif      /* #if SIZEOF_LONG == 8 */
#else /* SIZEOF_DOUBLE != 8 */
define_swapx(d, double)
#endif      /* #if SIZEOF_DOUBLE == 8 */

#undef define_swapx

#ifdef DYNAMIC_ENDIAN
#ifdef ntohs
#undef ntohs
#undef ntohl
#undef htons
#undef htonl
#endif
static int
endian()
{
    static int init = 0;
    static int endian_value;
    char *p;

    if (init) return endian_value;
    init = 1;
    p = (char*)&init;
    return endian_value = p[0]?0:1;
}

#define ntohs(x) (endian()?(x):swaps(x))
#define ntohl(x) (endian()?(x):swapl(x))
#define ntohf(x) (endian()?(x):swapf(x))
#define ntohd(x) (endian()?(x):swapd(x))
#define htons(x) (endian()?(x):swaps(x))
#define htonl(x) (endian()?(x):swapl(x))
#define htonf(x) (endian()?(x):swapf(x))
#define htond(x) (endian()?(x):swapd(x))
#define htovs(x) (endian()?swaps(x):(x))
#define htovl(x) (endian()?swapl(x):(x))
#define htovf(x) (endian()?swapf(x):(x))
#define htovd(x) (endian()?swapd(x):(x))
#define vtohs(x) (endian()?swaps(x):(x))
#define vtohl(x) (endian()?swapl(x):(x))
#define vtohf(x) (endian()?swapf(x):(x))
#define vtohd(x) (endian()?swapd(x):(x))
# ifdef NATINT_PACK
#define htov16(x) (endian()?swap16(x):(x))
#define htov32(x) (endian()?swap32(x):(x))
#define hton16(x) (endian()?(x):swap16(x))
#define hton32(x) (endian()?(x):swap32(x))
# endif
#else
#ifdef WORDS_BIGENDIAN
#ifndef ntohs
#define ntohs(x) (x)
#define ntohl(x) (x)
#define htons(x) (x)
#define htonl(x) (x)
#endif
#define ntohf(x) (x)
#define ntohd(x) (x)
#define htonf(x) (x)
#define htond(x) (x)
#define htovs(x) swaps(x)
#define htovl(x) swapl(x)
#define htovf(x) swapf(x)
#define htovd(x) swapd(x)
#define vtohs(x) swaps(x)
#define vtohl(x) swapl(x)
#define vtohf(x) swapf(x)
#define vtohd(x) swapd(x)
# ifdef NATINT_PACK
#define htov16(x) swap16(x)
#define htov32(x) swap32(x)
#define hton16(x) (x)
#define hton32(x) (x)
# endif
#else /* LITTLE ENDIAN */
#ifdef ntohs
#undef ntohs
#undef ntohl
#undef htons
#undef htonl
#endif
#define ntohs(x) swaps(x)
#define ntohl(x) swapl(x)
#define htons(x) swaps(x)
#define htonl(x) swapl(x)
#define ntohf(x) swapf(x)
#define ntohd(x) swapd(x)
#define htonf(x) swapf(x)
#define htond(x) swapd(x)
#define htovs(x) (x)
#define htovl(x) (x)
#define htovf(x) (x)
#define htovd(x) (x)
#define vtohs(x) (x)
#define vtohl(x) (x)
#define vtohf(x) (x)
#define vtohd(x) (x)
# ifdef NATINT_PACK
#define htov16(x) (x)
#define htov32(x) (x)
#define hton16(x) swap16(x)
#define hton32(x) swap32(x)
# endif
#endif
#endif

#ifdef FLOAT_SWAPPER
#define FLOAT_CONVWITH(y)     FLOAT_SWAPPER y;
#define HTONF(x,y)      (memcpy(&y,&x,sizeof(float)), \
                   y = htonf((FLOAT_SWAPPER)y), \
                   memcpy(&x,&y,sizeof(float)), \
                   x)
#define HTOVF(x,y)      (memcpy(&y,&x,sizeof(float)), \
                   y = htovf((FLOAT_SWAPPER)y), \
                   memcpy(&x,&y,sizeof(float)), \
                   x)
#define NTOHF(x,y)      (memcpy(&y,&x,sizeof(float)), \
                   y = ntohf((FLOAT_SWAPPER)y), \
                   memcpy(&x,&y,sizeof(float)), \
                   x)
#define VTOHF(x,y)      (memcpy(&y,&x,sizeof(float)), \
                   y = vtohf((FLOAT_SWAPPER)y), \
                   memcpy(&x,&y,sizeof(float)), \
                   x)
#else
#define FLOAT_CONVWITH(y)
#define HTONF(x,y)      htonf(x)
#define HTOVF(x,y)      htovf(x)
#define NTOHF(x,y)      ntohf(x)
#define VTOHF(x,y)      vtohf(x)
#endif

#ifdef DOUBLE_SWAPPER
#define DOUBLE_CONVWITH(y)    DOUBLE_SWAPPER y;
#define HTOND(x,y)      (memcpy(&y,&x,sizeof(double)),      \
                   y = htond((DOUBLE_SWAPPER)y),      \
                   memcpy(&x,&y,sizeof(double)),      \
                   x)
#define HTOVD(x,y)      (memcpy(&y,&x,sizeof(double)),      \
                   y = htovd((DOUBLE_SWAPPER)y),      \
                   memcpy(&x,&y,sizeof(double)),      \
                   x)
#define NTOHD(x,y)      (memcpy(&y,&x,sizeof(double)),      \
                   y = ntohd((DOUBLE_SWAPPER)y),      \
                   memcpy(&x,&y,sizeof(double)),      \
                   x)
#define VTOHD(x,y)      (memcpy(&y,&x,sizeof(double)),      \
                   y = vtohd((DOUBLE_SWAPPER)y),      \
                   memcpy(&x,&y,sizeof(double)),      \
                   x)
#else
#define DOUBLE_CONVWITH(y)
#define HTOND(x,y)      htond(x)
#define HTOVD(x,y)      htovd(x)
#define NTOHD(x,y)      ntohd(x)
#define VTOHD(x,y)      vtohd(x)
#endif

unsigned long rb_big2ulong_pack _((VALUE x));

static unsigned long
num2i32(x)
    VALUE x;
{
    x = rb_to_int(x); /* is nil OK? (should not) */

    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) return FIX2LONG(x);
    if (TYPE(x) == T_BIGNUM) {
      return rb_big2ulong_pack(x);
    }
    rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "can't convert %s to `integer'", rb_obj_classname(x));
    return 0;                 /* not reached */
}

#if SIZEOF_LONG == SIZE32 || SIZEOF_INT == SIZE32
# define EXTEND32(x) 
#else
/* invariant in modulo 1<<31 */
# define EXTEND32(x) do {if (!natint) {(x) = (I32)(((1<<31)-1-(x))^~(~0<<31));}} while(0)
#endif
#if SIZEOF_SHORT == SIZE16
# define EXTEND16(x) 
#else
# define EXTEND16(x) do { if (!natint) {(x) = (short)(((1<<15)-1-(x))^~(~0<<15));}} while(0)
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
# define QUAD_SIZE sizeof(LONG_LONG)
#else
# define QUAD_SIZE 8
#endif
static char *toofew = "too few arguments";

static void encodes _((VALUE,char*,long,int));
static void qpencode _((VALUE,VALUE,long));

static int uv_to_utf8 _((char*,unsigned long));
static unsigned long utf8_to_uv _((char*,long*));

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     arr.pack ( aTemplateString ) -> aBinaryString
 *  
 *  Packs the contents of <i>arr</i> into a binary sequence according to
 *  the directives in <i>aTemplateString</i> (see the table below)
 *  Directives ``A,'' ``a,'' and ``Z'' may be followed by a count,
 *  which gives the width of the resulting field. The remaining
 *  directives also may take a count, indicating the number of array
 *  elements to convert. If the count is an asterisk
 *  (``<code>*</code>''), all remaining array elements will be
 *  converted. Any of the directives ``<code>sSiIlL</code>'' may be
 *  followed by an underscore (``<code>_</code>'') to use the underlying
 *  platform's native size for the specified type; otherwise, they use a
 *  platform-independent size. Spaces are ignored in the template
 *  string. See also <code>String#unpack</code>.
 *     
 *     a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
 *     n = [ 65, 66, 67 ]
 *     a.pack("A3A3A3")   #=> "a  b  c  "
 *     a.pack("a3a3a3")   #=> "a\000\000b\000\000c\000\000"
 *     n.pack("ccc")      #=> "ABC"
 *     
 *  Directives for +pack+.
 *
 *   Directive    Meaning
 *   ---------------------------------------------------------------
 *       @     |  Moves to absolute position
 *       A     |  ASCII string (space padded, count is width)
 *       a     |  ASCII string (null padded, count is width)
 *       B     |  Bit string (descending bit order)
 *       b     |  Bit string (ascending bit order)
 *       C     |  Unsigned char
 *       c     |  Char
 *       D, d  |  Double-precision float, native format
 *       E     |  Double-precision float, little-endian byte order
 *       e     |  Single-precision float, little-endian byte order
 *       F, f  |  Single-precision float, native format
 *       G     |  Double-precision float, network (big-endian) byte order
 *       g     |  Single-precision float, network (big-endian) byte order
 *       H     |  Hex string (high nibble first)
 *       h     |  Hex string (low nibble first)
 *       I     |  Unsigned integer
 *       i     |  Integer
 *       L     |  Unsigned long
 *       l     |  Long
 *       M     |  Quoted printable, MIME encoding (see RFC2045)
 *       m     |  Base64 encoded string
 *       N     |  Long, network (big-endian) byte order
 *       n     |  Short, network (big-endian) byte-order
 *       P     |  Pointer to a structure (fixed-length string)
 *       p     |  Pointer to a null-terminated string
 *       Q, q  |  64-bit number
 *       S     |  Unsigned short
 *       s     |  Short
 *       U     |  UTF-8
 *       u     |  UU-encoded string
 *       V     |  Long, little-endian byte order
 *       v     |  Short, little-endian byte order
 *       w     |  BER-compressed integer\fnm
 *       X     |  Back up a byte
 *       x     |  Null byte
 *       Z     |  Same as ``a'', except that null is added with *
 */

static VALUE
pack_pack(ary, fmt)
    VALUE ary, fmt;
{
    static char *nul10 = "\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0";
    static char *spc10 = "          ";
    char *p, *pend;
    VALUE res, from, associates = 0;
    char type;
    long items, len, idx, plen;
    char *ptr;
#ifdef NATINT_PACK
    int natint;         /* native integer */
#endif

    StringValue(fmt);
    p = RSTRING(fmt)->ptr;
    pend = p + RSTRING(fmt)->len;
    res = rb_str_buf_new(0);

    items = RARRAY(ary)->len;
    idx = 0;

#define THISFROM RARRAY(ary)->ptr[idx]
#define NEXTFROM (items-- > 0 ? RARRAY(ary)->ptr[idx++] : (rb_raise(rb_eArgError, toofew),0))

    while (p < pend) {
      if (RSTRING(fmt)->ptr + RSTRING(fmt)->len != pend) {
          rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "format string modified");
      }
      type = *p++;            /* get data type */
#ifdef NATINT_PACK
      natint = 0;
#endif

      if (ISSPACE(type)) continue;
      if (type == '#') {
          while ((p < pend) && (*p != '\n')) {
            p++;
          }
          continue;
      }
        if (*p == '_' || *p == '!') {
          const char *natstr = "sSiIlL";

          if (strchr(natstr, type)) {
#ifdef NATINT_PACK
            natint = 1;
#endif
            p++;
          }
          else {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "'%c' allowed only after types %s", *p, natstr);
          }
      }
      if (*p == '*') {  /* set data length */
          len = strchr("@Xxu", type) ? 0 : items;
            p++;
      }
      else if (ISDIGIT(*p)) {
          len = strtoul(p, (char**)&p, 10);
      }
      else {
          len = 1;
      }

      switch (type) {
        case 'A': case 'a': case 'Z':
        case 'B': case 'b':
        case 'H': case 'h':
          from = NEXTFROM;
          if (NIL_P(from)) {
            ptr = "";
            plen = 0;
          }
          else {
            StringValue(from);
            ptr = RSTRING(from)->ptr;
            plen = RSTRING(from)->len;
            OBJ_INFECT(res, from);
          }

          if (p[-1] == '*')
            len = plen;

          switch (type) {
            case 'a':         /* arbitrary binary string (null padded)  */
            case 'A':         /* ASCII string (space padded) */
            case 'Z':         /* null terminated ASCII string  */
            if (plen >= len) {
                rb_str_buf_cat(res, ptr, len);
                if (p[-1] == '*' && type == 'Z')
                  rb_str_buf_cat(res, nul10, 1);
            }
            else {
                rb_str_buf_cat(res, ptr, plen);
                len -= plen;
                while (len >= 10) {
                  rb_str_buf_cat(res, (type == 'A')?spc10:nul10, 10);
                  len -= 10;
                }
                rb_str_buf_cat(res, (type == 'A')?spc10:nul10, len);
            }
            break;

            case 'b':         /* bit string (ascending) */
            {
                int byte = 0;
                long i, j = 0;

                if (len > plen) {
                  j = (len - plen + 1)/2;
                  len = plen;
                }
                for (i=0; i++ < len; ptr++) {
                  if (*ptr & 1)
                      byte |= 128;
                  if (i & 7)
                      byte >>= 1;
                  else {
                      char c = byte & 0xff;
                      rb_str_buf_cat(res, &c, 1);
                      byte = 0;
                  }
                }
                if (len & 7) {
                  char c;
                  byte >>= 7 - (len & 7);
                  c = byte & 0xff;
                  rb_str_buf_cat(res, &c, 1);
                }
                len = j;
                goto grow;
            }
            break;

            case 'B':         /* bit string (descending) */
            {
                int byte = 0;
                long i, j = 0;

                if (len > plen) {
                  j = (len - plen + 1)/2;
                  len = plen;
                }
                for (i=0; i++ < len; ptr++) {
                  byte |= *ptr & 1;
                  if (i & 7)
                      byte <<= 1;
                  else {
                      char c = byte & 0xff;
                      rb_str_buf_cat(res, &c, 1);
                      byte = 0;
                  }
                }
                if (len & 7) {
                  char c;
                  byte <<= 7 - (len & 7);
                  c = byte & 0xff;
                  rb_str_buf_cat(res, &c, 1);
                }
                len = j;
                goto grow;
            }
            break;

            case 'h':         /* hex string (low nibble first) */
            {
                int byte = 0;
                long i, j = 0;

                if (len > plen) {
                  j = (len - plen + 1)/2;
                  len = plen;
                }
                for (i=0; i++ < len; ptr++) {
                  if (ISALPHA(*ptr))
                      byte |= (((*ptr & 15) + 9) & 15) << 4;
                  else
                      byte |= (*ptr & 15) << 4;
                  if (i & 1)
                      byte >>= 4;
                  else {
                      char c = byte & 0xff;
                      rb_str_buf_cat(res, &c, 1);
                      byte = 0;
                  }
                }
                if (len & 1) {
                  char c = byte & 0xff;
                  rb_str_buf_cat(res, &c, 1);
                }
                len = j;
                goto grow;
            }
            break;

            case 'H':         /* hex string (high nibble first) */
            {
                int byte = 0;
                long i, j = 0;

                if (len > plen) {
                  j = (len - plen + 1)/2;
                  len = plen;
                }
                for (i=0; i++ < len; ptr++) {
                  if (ISALPHA(*ptr))
                      byte |= ((*ptr & 15) + 9) & 15;
                  else
                      byte |= *ptr & 15;
                  if (i & 1)
                      byte <<= 4;
                  else {
                      char c = byte & 0xff;
                      rb_str_buf_cat(res, &c, 1);
                      byte = 0;
                  }
                }
                if (len & 1) {
                  char c = byte & 0xff;
                  rb_str_buf_cat(res, &c, 1);
                }
                len = j;
                goto grow;
            }
            break;
          }
          break;

        case 'c':       /* signed char */
        case 'C':       /* unsigned char */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            char c;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            c = num2i32(from);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, &c, sizeof(char));
          }
          break;

        case 's':       /* signed short */
        case 'S':       /* unsigned short */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            short s;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            s = num2i32(from);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, OFF16(&s), NATINT_LEN(short,2));
          }
          break;

        case 'i':       /* signed int */
        case 'I':       /* unsigned int */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            long i;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            i = num2i32(from);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, OFF32(&i), NATINT_LEN(int,4));
          }
          break;

        case 'l':       /* signed long */
        case 'L':       /* unsigned long */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            long l;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            l = num2i32(from);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, OFF32(&l), NATINT_LEN(long,4));
          }
          break;

        case 'q':       /* signed quad (64bit) int */
        case 'Q':       /* unsigned quad (64bit) int */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            char tmp[QUAD_SIZE];

            from = NEXTFROM;
            rb_quad_pack(tmp, from);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, (char*)&tmp, QUAD_SIZE);
          }
          break;

        case 'n':       /* unsigned short (network byte-order)  */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned short s;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            s = num2i32(from);
            s = NATINT_HTONS(s);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, OFF16(&s), NATINT_LEN(short,2));
          }
          break;

        case 'N':       /* unsigned long (network byte-order) */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned long l;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            l = num2i32(from);
            l = NATINT_HTONL(l);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, OFF32(&l), NATINT_LEN(long,4));
          }
          break;

        case 'v':       /* unsigned short (VAX byte-order) */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned short s;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            s = num2i32(from);
            s = NATINT_HTOVS(s);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, OFF16(&s), NATINT_LEN(short,2));
          }
          break;

        case 'V':       /* unsigned long (VAX byte-order) */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned long l;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            l = num2i32(from);
            l = NATINT_HTOVL(l);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, OFF32(&l), NATINT_LEN(long,4));
          }
          break;

        case 'f':       /* single precision float in native format */
        case 'F':       /* ditto */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            float f;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            f = RFLOAT(rb_Float(from))->value;
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, (char*)&f, sizeof(float));
          }
          break;

        case 'e':       /* single precision float in VAX byte-order */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            float f;
            FLOAT_CONVWITH(ftmp);

            from = NEXTFROM;
            f = RFLOAT(rb_Float(from))->value;
            f = HTOVF(f,ftmp);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, (char*)&f, sizeof(float));
          }
          break;

        case 'E':       /* double precision float in VAX byte-order */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            double d;
            DOUBLE_CONVWITH(dtmp);

            from = NEXTFROM;
            d = RFLOAT(rb_Float(from))->value;
            d = HTOVD(d,dtmp);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, (char*)&d, sizeof(double));
          }
          break;

        case 'd':       /* double precision float in native format */
        case 'D':       /* ditto */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            double d;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            d = RFLOAT(rb_Float(from))->value;
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, (char*)&d, sizeof(double));
          }
          break;

        case 'g':       /* single precision float in network byte-order */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            float f;
            FLOAT_CONVWITH(ftmp);

            from = NEXTFROM;
            f = RFLOAT(rb_Float(from))->value;
            f = HTONF(f,ftmp);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, (char*)&f, sizeof(float));
          }
          break;

        case 'G':       /* double precision float in network byte-order */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            double d;
            DOUBLE_CONVWITH(dtmp);

            from = NEXTFROM;
            d = RFLOAT(rb_Float(from))->value;
            d = HTOND(d,dtmp);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, (char*)&d, sizeof(double));
          }
          break;

        case 'x':       /* null byte */
        grow:
          while (len >= 10) {
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, nul10, 10);
            len -= 10;
          }
          rb_str_buf_cat(res, nul10, len);
          break;

        case 'X':       /* back up byte */
        shrink:
          plen = RSTRING(res)->len;
          if (plen < len)
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "X outside of string");
          RSTRING(res)->len = plen - len;
          RSTRING(res)->ptr[plen - len] = '\0';
          break;

        case '@':       /* null fill to absolute position */
          len -= RSTRING(res)->len;
          if (len > 0) goto grow;
          len = -len;
          if (len > 0) goto shrink;
          break;

        case '%':
          rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "%% is not supported");
          break;

        case 'U':       /* Unicode character */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            long l;
            char buf[8];
            int le;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            from = rb_to_int(from);
            l = NUM2INT(from);
            if (l < 0) {
                rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "pack(U): value out of range");
            }
            le = uv_to_utf8(buf, l);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, (char*)buf, le);
          }
          break;

        case 'u':       /* uuencoded string */
        case 'm':       /* base64 encoded string */
          from = NEXTFROM;
          StringValue(from);
          ptr = RSTRING(from)->ptr;
          plen = RSTRING(from)->len;

          if (len <= 2)
            len = 45;
          else
            len = len / 3 * 3;
          while (plen > 0) {
            long todo;

            if (plen > len)
                todo = len;
            else
                todo = plen;
            encodes(res, ptr, todo, type);
            plen -= todo;
            ptr += todo;
          }
          break;

        case 'M':       /* quoted-printable encoded string */
          from = rb_obj_as_string(NEXTFROM);
          if (len <= 1)
            len = 72;
          qpencode(res, from, len);
          break;

        case 'P':       /* pointer to packed byte string */
          from = THISFROM;
          if (!NIL_P(from)) {
            StringValue(from);
            if (RSTRING(from)->len < len) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "too short buffer for P(%ld for %ld)",
                       RSTRING(from)->len, len);
            }
          }
          len = 1;
          /* FALL THROUGH */
        case 'p':       /* pointer to string */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            char *t;
            from = NEXTFROM;
            if (NIL_P(from)) {
                t = 0;
            }
            else {
                t = StringValuePtr(from);
            }
            if (!associates) {
                associates = rb_ary_new();
            }
            rb_ary_push(associates, from);
            rb_str_buf_cat(res, (char*)&t, sizeof(char*));
          }
          break;

        case 'w':       /* BER compressed integer  */
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned long ul;
            VALUE buf = rb_str_new(0, 0);
            char c, *bufs, *bufe;

            from = NEXTFROM;
            if (TYPE(from) == T_BIGNUM) {
                VALUE big128 = rb_uint2big(128);
                while (TYPE(from) == T_BIGNUM) {
                  from = rb_big_divmod(from, big128);
                  c = NUM2INT(RARRAY(from)->ptr[1]) | 0x80; /* mod */
                  rb_str_buf_cat(buf, &c, sizeof(char));
                  from = RARRAY(from)->ptr[0]; /* div */
                }
            }

            {
                long l = NUM2LONG(from);
                if (l < 0) {
                  rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "can't compress negative numbers");
                }
                ul = l;
            }

            while (ul) {
                c = ((ul & 0x7f) | 0x80);
                rb_str_buf_cat(buf, &c, sizeof(char));
                ul >>=  7;
            }

            if (RSTRING(buf)->len) {
                bufs = RSTRING(buf)->ptr;
                bufe = bufs + RSTRING(buf)->len - 1;
                *bufs &= 0x7f; /* clear continue bit */
                while (bufs < bufe) { /* reverse */
                  c = *bufs;
                  *bufs++ = *bufe;
                  *bufe-- = c;
                }
                rb_str_buf_cat(res, RSTRING(buf)->ptr, RSTRING(buf)->len);
            }
            else {
                c = 0;
                rb_str_buf_cat(res, &c, sizeof(char));
            }
          }
          break;

        default:
          break;
      }
    }

    if (associates) {
      rb_str_associate(res, associates);
    }
    return res;
}

static char uu_table[] =
"`!\"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\\]^_";
static char b64_table[] =
"ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/";

static void
encodes(str, s, len, type)
    VALUE str;
    char *s;
    long len;
    int type;
{
    char *buff = ALLOCA_N(char, len * 4 / 3 + 6);
    long i = 0;
    char *trans = type == 'u' ? uu_table : b64_table;
    int padding;

    if (type == 'u') {
      buff[i++] = len + ' ';
      padding = '`';
    }
    else {
      padding = '=';
    }
    while (len >= 3) {
      buff[i++] = trans[077 & (*s >> 2)];
      buff[i++] = trans[077 & (((*s << 4) & 060) | ((s[1] >> 4) & 017))];
      buff[i++] = trans[077 & (((s[1] << 2) & 074) | ((s[2] >> 6) & 03))];
      buff[i++] = trans[077 & s[2]];
      s += 3;
      len -= 3;
    }
    if (len == 2) {
      buff[i++] = trans[077 & (*s >> 2)];
      buff[i++] = trans[077 & (((*s << 4) & 060) | ((s[1] >> 4) & 017))];
      buff[i++] = trans[077 & (((s[1] << 2) & 074) | (('\0' >> 6) & 03))];
      buff[i++] = padding;
    }
    else if (len == 1) {
      buff[i++] = trans[077 & (*s >> 2)];
      buff[i++] = trans[077 & (((*s << 4) & 060) | (('\0' >> 4) & 017))];
      buff[i++] = padding;
      buff[i++] = padding;
    }
    buff[i++] = '\n';
    rb_str_buf_cat(str, buff, i);
}

static char hex_table[] = "0123456789ABCDEF";

static void
qpencode(str, from, len)
    VALUE str, from;
    long len;
{
    char buff[1024];
    long i = 0, n = 0, prev = EOF;
    unsigned char *s = (unsigned char*)RSTRING(from)->ptr;
    unsigned char *send = s + RSTRING(from)->len;

    while (s < send) {
        if ((*s > 126) ||
          (*s < 32 && *s != '\n' && *s != '\t') ||
          (*s == '=')) {
          buff[i++] = '=';
          buff[i++] = hex_table[*s >> 4];
          buff[i++] = hex_table[*s & 0x0f];
            n += 3;
            prev = EOF;
        }
      else if (*s == '\n') {
            if (prev == ' ' || prev == '\t') {
            buff[i++] = '=';
            buff[i++] = *s;
            }
          buff[i++] = *s;
            n = 0;
            prev = *s;
        }
      else {
          buff[i++] = *s;
            n++;
            prev = *s;
        }
        if (n > len) {
          buff[i++] = '=';
          buff[i++] = '\n';
            n = 0;
            prev = '\n';
        }
      if (i > 1024 - 5) {
          rb_str_buf_cat(str, buff, i);
          i = 0;
      }
      s++;
    }
    if (n > 0) {
      buff[i++] = '=';
      buff[i++] = '\n';
    }
    if (i > 0) {
      rb_str_buf_cat(str, buff, i);
    }
}

static inline int
hex2num(c)
    char c;
{
    switch (c) {
    case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
    case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
        return c - '0';
    case 'a': case 'b': case 'c':
    case 'd': case 'e': case 'f':
      return c - 'a' + 10;
    case 'A': case 'B': case 'C':
    case 'D': case 'E': case 'F':
      return c - 'A' + 10;
    default:
      return -1;
    }
}

#define PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST_SIZE(sz) do {  \
    tmp = 0;                              \
    if (len > (send-s)/sz) {              \
        if (!star) {                      \
          tmp = len-(send-s)/sz;          \
        }                           \
      len = (send-s)/sz;                  \
    }                               \
} while (0)

#ifdef NATINT_PACK
#define PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(type,sz) do {  \
    int t__len = NATINT_LEN(type,(sz));         \
    PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST_SIZE(t__len);            \
} while (0)
#else
#define PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(type,sz)             \
    PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST_SIZE(sizeof(type))
#endif

#define PACK_ITEM_ADJUST() while (tmp--) rb_ary_push(ary, Qnil)

static VALUE
infected_str_new(ptr, len, str)
    const char *ptr;
    long len;
    VALUE str;
{
    VALUE s = rb_str_new(ptr, len);

    OBJ_INFECT(s, str);
    return s;
}
    
/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     str.unpack(format)   => anArray
 *  
 *  Decodes <i>str</i> (which may contain binary data) according to the
 *  format string, returning an array of each value extracted. The
 *  format string consists of a sequence of single-character directives,
 *  summarized in the table at the end of this entry.
 *  Each directive may be followed
 *  by a number, indicating the number of times to repeat with this
 *  directive. An asterisk (``<code>*</code>'') will use up all
 *  remaining elements. The directives <code>sSiIlL</code> may each be
 *  followed by an underscore (``<code>_</code>'') to use the underlying
 *  platform's native size for the specified type; otherwise, it uses a
 *  platform-independent consistent size. Spaces are ignored in the
 *  format string. See also <code>Array#pack</code>.
 *     
 *     "abc \0\0abc \0\0".unpack('A6Z6')   #=> ["abc", "abc "]
 *     "abc \0\0".unpack('a3a3')           #=> ["abc", " \000\000"]
 *     "abc \0abc \0".unpack('Z*Z*')       #=> ["abc ", "abc "]
 *     "aa".unpack('b8B8')                 #=> ["10000110", "01100001"]
 *     "aaa".unpack('h2H2c')               #=> ["16", "61", 97]
 *     "\xfe\xff\xfe\xff".unpack('sS')     #=> [-2, 65534]
 *     "now=20is".unpack('M*')             #=> ["now is"]
 *     "whole".unpack('xax2aX2aX1aX2a')    #=> ["h", "e", "l", "l", "o"]
 *
 *  This table summarizes the various formats and the Ruby classes
 *  returned by each.
 *     
 *     Format | Returns | Function
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       A    | String  | with trailing nulls and spaces removed
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       a    | String  | string
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       B    | String  | extract bits from each character (msb first)
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       b    | String  | extract bits from each character (lsb first)
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       C    | Fixnum  | extract a character as an unsigned integer
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       c    | Fixnum  | extract a character as an integer
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       d,D  | Float   | treat sizeof(double) characters as
 *            |         | a native double
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       E    | Float   | treat sizeof(double) characters as
 *            |         | a double in little-endian byte order
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       e    | Float   | treat sizeof(float) characters as
 *            |         | a float in little-endian byte order
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       f,F  | Float   | treat sizeof(float) characters as
 *            |         | a native float
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       G    | Float   | treat sizeof(double) characters as
 *            |         | a double in network byte order
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       g    | Float   | treat sizeof(float) characters as a
 *            |         | float in network byte order
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       H    | String  | extract hex nibbles from each character
 *            |         | (most significant first)
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       h    | String  | extract hex nibbles from each character
 *            |         | (least significant first)
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       I    | Integer | treat sizeof(int) (modified by _)
 *            |         | successive characters as an unsigned
 *            |         | native integer
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       i    | Integer | treat sizeof(int) (modified by _)
 *            |         | successive characters as a signed
 *            |         | native integer
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       L    | Integer | treat four (modified by _) successive
 *            |         | characters as an unsigned native
 *            |         | long integer
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       l    | Integer | treat four (modified by _) successive
 *            |         | characters as a signed native
 *            |         | long integer
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       M    | String  | quoted-printable
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       m    | String  | base64-encoded
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       N    | Integer | treat four characters as an unsigned
 *            |         | long in network byte order
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       n    | Fixnum  | treat two characters as an unsigned
 *            |         | short in network byte order
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       P    | String  | treat sizeof(char *) characters as a
 *            |         | pointer, and  return \emph{len} characters
 *            |         | from the referenced location
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       p    | String  | treat sizeof(char *) characters as a
 *            |         | pointer to a  null-terminated string
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       Q    | Integer | treat 8 characters as an unsigned 
 *            |         | quad word (64 bits)
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       q    | Integer | treat 8 characters as a signed 
 *            |         | quad word (64 bits)
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       S    | Fixnum  | treat two (different if _ used)
 *            |         | successive characters as an unsigned
 *            |         | short in native byte order
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       s    | Fixnum  | Treat two (different if _ used) 
 *            |         | successive characters as a signed short
 *            |         | in native byte order
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       U    | Integer | UTF-8 characters as unsigned integers
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       u    | String  | UU-encoded
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       V    | Fixnum  | treat four characters as an unsigned
 *            |         | long in little-endian byte order
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       v    | Fixnum  | treat two characters as an unsigned
 *            |         | short in little-endian byte order
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       w    | Integer | BER-compressed integer (see Array.pack)
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       X    | ---     | skip backward one character
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       x    | ---     | skip forward one character
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       Z    | String  | with trailing nulls removed
 *            |         | upto first null with *
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 *       @    | ---     | skip to the offset given by the 
 *            |         | length argument
 *     -------+---------+-----------------------------------------
 */

static VALUE
pack_unpack(str, fmt)
    VALUE str, fmt;
{
    static char *hexdigits = "0123456789abcdef0123456789ABCDEFx";
    char *s, *send;
    char *p, *pend;
    VALUE ary;
    char type;
    long len;
    int tmp, star;
#ifdef NATINT_PACK
    int natint;               /* native integer */
#endif

    StringValue(str);
    StringValue(fmt);
    s = RSTRING(str)->ptr;
    send = s + RSTRING(str)->len;
    p = RSTRING(fmt)->ptr;
    pend = p + RSTRING(fmt)->len;

    ary = rb_ary_new();
    while (p < pend) {
      type = *p++;
#ifdef NATINT_PACK
      natint = 0;
#endif

      if (ISSPACE(type)) continue;
      if (type == '#') {
          while ((p < pend) && (*p != '\n')) {
            p++;
          }
          continue;
      }
      star = 0;
      if (*p == '_' || *p == '!') {
          char *natstr = "sSiIlL";

          if (strchr(natstr, type)) {
#ifdef NATINT_PACK
            natint = 1;
#endif
            p++;
          }
          else {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "'%c' allowed only after types %s", *p, natstr);
          }
      }
      if (p >= pend)
          len = 1;
      else if (*p == '*') {
          star = 1;
          len = send - s;
          p++;
      }
      else if (ISDIGIT(*p)) {
          len = strtoul(p, (char**)&p, 10);
      }
      else {
          len = (type != '@');
      }

      switch (type) {
        case '%':
          rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "%% is not supported");
          break;

        case 'A':
          if (len > send - s) len = send - s;
          {
            long end = len;
            char *t = s + len - 1;

            while (t >= s) {
                if (*t != ' ' && *t != '\0') break;
                t--; len--;
            }
            rb_ary_push(ary, infected_str_new(s, len, str));
            s += end;
          }
          break;

        case 'Z':
          {
            char *t = s;

            if (len > send-s) len = send-s;
            while (t < s+len && *t) t++;
            rb_ary_push(ary, infected_str_new(s, t-s, str));
            if (t < send) t++;
            s = star ? t : s+len;
          }
          break;

        case 'a':
          if (len > send - s) len = send - s;
          rb_ary_push(ary, infected_str_new(s, len, str));
          s += len;
          break;


        case 'b':
          {
            VALUE bitstr;
            char *t;
            int bits;
            long i;

            if (p[-1] == '*' || len > (send - s) * 8)
                len = (send - s) * 8;
            bits = 0;
            rb_ary_push(ary, bitstr = rb_str_new(0, len));
            t = RSTRING(bitstr)->ptr;
            for (i=0; i<len; i++) {
                if (i & 7) bits >>= 1;
                else bits = *s++;
                *t++ = (bits & 1) ? '1' : '0';
            }
          }
          break;

        case 'B':
          {
            VALUE bitstr;
            char *t;
            int bits;
            long i;

            if (p[-1] == '*' || len > (send - s) * 8)
                len = (send - s) * 8;
            bits = 0;
            rb_ary_push(ary, bitstr = rb_str_new(0, len));
            t = RSTRING(bitstr)->ptr;
            for (i=0; i<len; i++) {
                if (i & 7) bits <<= 1;
                else bits = *s++;
                *t++ = (bits & 128) ? '1' : '0';
            }
          }
          break;

        case 'h':
          {
            VALUE bitstr;
            char *t;
            int bits;
            long i;

            if (p[-1] == '*' || len > (send - s) * 2)
                len = (send - s) * 2;
            bits = 0;
            rb_ary_push(ary, bitstr = rb_str_new(0, len));
            t = RSTRING(bitstr)->ptr;
            for (i=0; i<len; i++) {
                if (i & 1)
                  bits >>= 4;
                else
                  bits = *s++;
                *t++ = hexdigits[bits & 15];
            }
          }
          break;

        case 'H':
          {
            VALUE bitstr;
            char *t;
            int bits;
            long i;

            if (p[-1] == '*' || len > (send - s) * 2)
                len = (send - s) * 2;
            bits = 0;
            rb_ary_push(ary, bitstr = rb_str_new(0, len));
            t = RSTRING(bitstr)->ptr;
            for (i=0; i<len; i++) {
                if (i & 1)
                  bits <<= 4;
                else
                  bits = *s++;
                *t++ = hexdigits[(bits >> 4) & 15];
            }
          }
          break;

        case 'c':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(char,sizeof(char));
          while (len-- > 0) {
                int c = *s++;
                if (c > (char)127) c-=256;
            rb_ary_push(ary, INT2FIX(c));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'C':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(unsigned char,sizeof(unsigned char));
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned char c = *s++;
            rb_ary_push(ary, INT2FIX(c));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 's':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(short,2);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            short tmp = 0;
            memcpy(OFF16(&tmp), s, NATINT_LEN(short,2));
            EXTEND16(tmp);
            s += NATINT_LEN(short,2);
            rb_ary_push(ary, INT2FIX(tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'S':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(unsigned short,2);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned short tmp = 0;
            memcpy(OFF16(&tmp), s, NATINT_LEN(unsigned short,2));
            s += NATINT_LEN(unsigned short,2);
            rb_ary_push(ary, INT2FIX(tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'i':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(int,sizeof(int));
          while (len-- > 0) {
            int tmp;
            memcpy(&tmp, s, sizeof(int));
            s += sizeof(int);
            rb_ary_push(ary, INT2NUM(tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'I':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(unsigned int,sizeof(unsigned int));
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned int tmp;
            memcpy(&tmp, s, sizeof(unsigned int));
            s += sizeof(unsigned int);
            rb_ary_push(ary, UINT2NUM(tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'l':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(long,4);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            long tmp = 0;
            memcpy(OFF32(&tmp), s, NATINT_LEN(long,4));
            EXTEND32(tmp);
            s += NATINT_LEN(long,4);
            rb_ary_push(ary, LONG2NUM(tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;
        case 'L':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(unsigned long,4);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned long tmp = 0;
            memcpy(OFF32(&tmp), s, NATINT_LEN(unsigned long,4));
            s += NATINT_LEN(unsigned long,4);
            rb_ary_push(ary, ULONG2NUM(tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'q':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST_SIZE(QUAD_SIZE);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            char *tmp = (char*)s;
            s += QUAD_SIZE;
            rb_ary_push(ary, rb_quad_unpack(tmp, 1));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;
      case 'Q':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST_SIZE(QUAD_SIZE);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            char *tmp = (char*)s;
            s += QUAD_SIZE;
            rb_ary_push(ary, rb_quad_unpack(tmp, 0));
          }
          break;

        case 'n':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(unsigned short,2);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned short tmp = 0;
            memcpy(OFF16B(&tmp), s, NATINT_LEN(unsigned short,2));
            s += NATINT_LEN(unsigned short,2);
            rb_ary_push(ary, UINT2NUM(ntohs(tmp)));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'N':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(unsigned long,4);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned long tmp = 0;
            memcpy(OFF32B(&tmp), s, NATINT_LEN(unsigned long,4));
            s += NATINT_LEN(unsigned long,4);
            rb_ary_push(ary, ULONG2NUM(ntohl(tmp)));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'v':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(unsigned short,2);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned short tmp = 0;
            memcpy(OFF16(&tmp), s, NATINT_LEN(unsigned short,2));
            s += NATINT_LEN(unsigned short,2);
            rb_ary_push(ary, UINT2NUM(vtohs(tmp)));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'V':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(unsigned long,4);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            unsigned long tmp = 0;
            memcpy(OFF32(&tmp), s, NATINT_LEN(long,4));
            s += NATINT_LEN(long,4);
            rb_ary_push(ary, ULONG2NUM(vtohl(tmp)));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'f':
        case 'F':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(float,sizeof(float));
          while (len-- > 0) {
            float tmp;
            memcpy(&tmp, s, sizeof(float));
            s += sizeof(float);
            rb_ary_push(ary, rb_float_new((double)tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'e':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(float,sizeof(float));
          while (len-- > 0) {
              float tmp;
            FLOAT_CONVWITH(ftmp);

            memcpy(&tmp, s, sizeof(float));
            s += sizeof(float);
            tmp = VTOHF(tmp,ftmp);
            rb_ary_push(ary, rb_float_new((double)tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;
          
        case 'E':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(double,sizeof(double));
          while (len-- > 0) {
            double tmp;
            DOUBLE_CONVWITH(dtmp);

            memcpy(&tmp, s, sizeof(double));
            s += sizeof(double);
            tmp = VTOHD(tmp,dtmp);
            rb_ary_push(ary, rb_float_new(tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;
          
        case 'D':
        case 'd':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(double,sizeof(double));
          while (len-- > 0) {
            double tmp;
            memcpy(&tmp, s, sizeof(double));
            s += sizeof(double);
            rb_ary_push(ary, rb_float_new(tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;

        case 'g':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(float,sizeof(float));
          while (len-- > 0) {
              float tmp;
            FLOAT_CONVWITH(ftmp;)

            memcpy(&tmp, s, sizeof(float));
            s += sizeof(float);
            tmp = NTOHF(tmp,ftmp);
            rb_ary_push(ary, rb_float_new((double)tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;
          
        case 'G':
          PACK_LENGTH_ADJUST(double,sizeof(double));
          while (len-- > 0) {
            double tmp;
            DOUBLE_CONVWITH(dtmp);

            memcpy(&tmp, s, sizeof(double));
            s += sizeof(double);
            tmp = NTOHD(tmp,dtmp);
            rb_ary_push(ary, rb_float_new(tmp));
          }
          PACK_ITEM_ADJUST();
          break;
          
        case 'U':
          if (len > send - s) len = send - s;
          while (len > 0 && s < send) {
            long alen = send - s;
            unsigned long l;

            l = utf8_to_uv(s, &alen);
            s += alen; len--;
            rb_ary_push(ary, ULONG2NUM(l));
          }
          break;

        case 'u':
          {
            VALUE buf = infected_str_new(0, (send - s)*3/4, str);
            char *ptr = RSTRING(buf)->ptr;
            long total = 0;

            while (s < send && *s > ' ' && *s < 'a') {
                long a,b,c,d;
                char hunk[4];

                hunk[3] = '\0';
                len = (*s++ - ' ') & 077;
                total += len;
                if (total > RSTRING(buf)->len) {
                  len -= total - RSTRING(buf)->len;
                  total = RSTRING(buf)->len;
                }

                while (len > 0) {
                  long mlen = len > 3 ? 3 : len;

                  if (s < send && *s >= ' ')
                      a = (*s++ - ' ') & 077;
                  else
                      a = 0;
                  if (s < send && *s >= ' ')
                      b = (*s++ - ' ') & 077;
                  else
                      b = 0;
                  if (s < send && *s >= ' ')
                      c = (*s++ - ' ') & 077;
                  else
                      c = 0;
                  if (s < send && *s >= ' ')
                      d = (*s++ - ' ') & 077;
                  else
                      d = 0;
                  hunk[0] = a << 2 | b >> 4;
                  hunk[1] = b << 4 | c >> 2;
                  hunk[2] = c << 6 | d;
                  memcpy(ptr, hunk, mlen);
                  ptr += mlen;
                  len -= mlen;
                }
                if (*s == '\r') s++;
                if (*s == '\n') s++;
                else if (s < send && (s+1 == send || s[1] == '\n'))
                  s += 2;     /* possible checksum byte */
            }
            
            RSTRING(buf)->ptr[total] = '\0';
            RSTRING(buf)->len = total;
            rb_ary_push(ary, buf);
          }
          break;

        case 'm':
          {
            VALUE buf = infected_str_new(0, (send - s)*3/4, str);
            char *ptr = RSTRING(buf)->ptr;
            int a = -1,b = -1,c = 0,d;
            static int first = 1;
            static int b64_xtable[256];

            if (first) {
                int i;
                first = 0;

                for (i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
                  b64_xtable[i] = -1;
                }
                for (i = 0; i < 64; i++) {
                  b64_xtable[(int)b64_table[i]] = i;
                }
            }
            while (s < send) {
                while (s[0] == '\r' || s[0] == '\n') { s++; }
                if ((a = b64_xtable[(int)s[0]]) == -1) break;
                if ((b = b64_xtable[(int)s[1]]) == -1) break;
                if ((c = b64_xtable[(int)s[2]]) == -1) break;
                if ((d = b64_xtable[(int)s[3]]) == -1) break;
                *ptr++ = a << 2 | b >> 4;
                *ptr++ = b << 4 | c >> 2;
                *ptr++ = c << 6 | d;
                s += 4;
            }
            if (a != -1 && b != -1) {
                if (s + 2 < send && s[2] == '=')
                  *ptr++ = a << 2 | b >> 4;
                if (c != -1 && s + 3 < send && s[3] == '=') {
                  *ptr++ = a << 2 | b >> 4;
                  *ptr++ = b << 4 | c >> 2;
                }
            }
            *ptr = '\0';
            RSTRING(buf)->len = ptr - RSTRING(buf)->ptr;
            rb_ary_push(ary, buf);
          }
          break;

        case 'M':
          {
            VALUE buf = infected_str_new(0, send - s, str);
            char *ptr = RSTRING(buf)->ptr;
            int c1, c2;

            while (s < send) {
                if (*s == '=') {
                  if (++s == send) break;
                  if (*s != '\n') {
                      if ((c1 = hex2num(*s)) == -1) break;
                      if (++s == send) break;
                      if ((c2 = hex2num(*s)) == -1) break;
                      *ptr++ = c1 << 4 | c2;
                  }
                }
                else {
                  *ptr++ = *s;
                }
                s++;
            }
            *ptr = '\0';
            RSTRING(buf)->len = ptr - RSTRING(buf)->ptr;
            rb_ary_push(ary, buf);
          }
          break;

        case '@':
          if (len > RSTRING(str)->len)
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "@ outside of string");
          s = RSTRING(str)->ptr + len;
          break;

        case 'X':
          if (len > s - RSTRING(str)->ptr)
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "X outside of string");
          s -= len;
          break;

        case 'x':
          if (len > send - s)
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "x outside of string");
          s += len;
          break;

        case 'P':
          if (sizeof(char *) <= send - s) {
            char *t;
            VALUE tmp;

            memcpy(&t, s, sizeof(char *));
            s += sizeof(char *);

            if (t) {
                VALUE a, *p, *pend;

                if (!(a = rb_str_associated(str))) {
                  rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "no associated pointer");
                }
                p = RARRAY(a)->ptr;
                pend = p + RARRAY(a)->len;
                while (p < pend) {
                  if (TYPE(*p) == T_STRING && RSTRING(*p)->ptr == t) {
                      if (len > RSTRING(*p)->len) {
                        len = RSTRING(*p)->len;
                      }
                      break;
                  }
                  p++;
                }
                if (p == pend) {
                  rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "non associated pointer");
                }
                tmp = rb_tainted_str_new(t, len);
            }
            else {
                tmp = Qnil;
            }
            rb_ary_push(ary, tmp);
          }
          break;

        case 'p':
          if (len > (send - s) / sizeof(char *))
            len = (send - s) / sizeof(char *);
          while (len-- > 0) {
            if (send - s < sizeof(char *))
                break;
            else {
                VALUE tmp;
                char *t;

                memcpy(&t, s, sizeof(char *));
                s += sizeof(char *);

                if (t) {
                  VALUE a, *p, *pend;

                  if (!(a = rb_str_associated(str))) {
                      rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "no associated pointer");
                  }
                  p = RARRAY(a)->ptr;
                  pend = p + RARRAY(a)->len;
                  while (p < pend) {
                      if (TYPE(*p) == T_STRING && RSTRING(*p)->ptr == t) {
                        break;
                      }
                      p++;
                  }
                  if (p == pend) {
                      rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "non associated pointer");
                  }
                  tmp = rb_str_new2(t);
                  OBJ_INFECT(tmp, str);
                }
                else {
                  tmp = Qnil;
                }
                rb_ary_push(ary, tmp);
            }
          }
          break;

        case 'w':
          {
            unsigned long ul = 0;
            unsigned long ulmask = 0xfeL << ((sizeof(unsigned long) - 1) * 8);

            while (len > 0 && s < send) {
                ul <<= 7;
                ul |= (*s & 0x7f);
                if (!(*s++ & 0x80)) {
                  rb_ary_push(ary, ULONG2NUM(ul));
                  len--;
                  ul = 0;
                }
                else if (ul & ulmask) {
                  VALUE big = rb_uint2big(ul);
                  VALUE big128 = rb_uint2big(128);
                  while (s < send) {
                      big = rb_big_mul(big, big128);
                      big = rb_big_plus(big, rb_uint2big(*s & 0x7f));
                      if (!(*s++ & 0x80)) {
                        rb_ary_push(ary, big);
                        len--;
                        ul = 0;
                        break;
                      }
                  }
                }
            }
          }
          break;

        default:
          break;
      }
    }

    return ary;
}

#define BYTEWIDTH 8

static int
uv_to_utf8(buf, uv)
    char *buf;
    unsigned long uv;
{
    if (uv <= 0x7f) {
      buf[0] = (char)uv;
      return 1;
    }
    if (uv <= 0x7ff) {
      buf[0] = ((uv>>6)&0xff)|0xc0;
      buf[1] = (uv&0x3f)|0x80;
      return 2;
    }
    if (uv <= 0xffff) {
      buf[0] = ((uv>>12)&0xff)|0xe0;
      buf[1] = ((uv>>6)&0x3f)|0x80;
      buf[2] = (uv&0x3f)|0x80;
      return 3;
    }
    if (uv <= 0x1fffff) {
      buf[0] = ((uv>>18)&0xff)|0xf0;
      buf[1] = ((uv>>12)&0x3f)|0x80;
      buf[2] = ((uv>>6)&0x3f)|0x80;
      buf[3] = (uv&0x3f)|0x80;
      return 4;
    }
    if (uv <= 0x3ffffff) {
      buf[0] = ((uv>>24)&0xff)|0xf8;
      buf[1] = ((uv>>18)&0x3f)|0x80;
      buf[2] = ((uv>>12)&0x3f)|0x80;
      buf[3] = ((uv>>6)&0x3f)|0x80;
      buf[4] = (uv&0x3f)|0x80;
      return 5;
    }
    if (uv <= 0x7fffffff) {
      buf[0] = ((uv>>30)&0xff)|0xfc;
      buf[1] = ((uv>>24)&0x3f)|0x80;
      buf[2] = ((uv>>18)&0x3f)|0x80;
      buf[3] = ((uv>>12)&0x3f)|0x80;
      buf[4] = ((uv>>6)&0x3f)|0x80;
      buf[5] = (uv&0x3f)|0x80;
      return 6;
    }
    rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "pack(U): value out of range");
}

static const unsigned long utf8_limits[] = {
    0x0,                /* 1 */
    0x80,               /* 2 */
    0x800,              /* 3 */
    0x10000,                  /* 4 */
    0x200000,                 /* 5 */
    0x4000000,                /* 6 */
    0x80000000,               /* 7 */
};

static unsigned long
utf8_to_uv(p, lenp)
    char *p;
    long *lenp;
{
    int c = *p++ & 0xff;
    unsigned long uv = c;
    long n;

    if (!(uv & 0x80)) {
      *lenp = 1;
        return uv;
    }
    if (!(uv & 0x40)) {
      *lenp = 1;
      rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed UTF-8 character");
    }

    if      (!(uv & 0x20)) { n = 2; uv &= 0x1f; }
    else if (!(uv & 0x10)) { n = 3; uv &= 0x0f; }
    else if (!(uv & 0x08)) { n = 4; uv &= 0x07; }
    else if (!(uv & 0x04)) { n = 5; uv &= 0x03; }
    else if (!(uv & 0x02)) { n = 6; uv &= 0x01; }
    else {
      *lenp = 1;
      rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed UTF-8 character");
    }
    if (n > *lenp) {
      rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed UTF-8 character (expected %d bytes, given %d bytes)",
             n, *lenp);
    }
    *lenp = n--;
    if (n != 0) {
      while (n--) {
          c = *p++ & 0xff;
          if ((c & 0xc0) != 0x80) {
            *lenp -= n + 1;
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed UTF-8 character");
          }
          else {
            c &= 0x3f;
            uv = uv << 6 | c;
          }
      }
    }
    n = *lenp - 1;
    if (uv < utf8_limits[n]) {
      rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "redundant UTF-8 sequence");
    }
    return uv;
}

void
Init_pack()
{
    rb_define_method(rb_cArray, "pack", pack_pack, 1);
    rb_define_method(rb_cString, "unpack", pack_unpack, 1);
}

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