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sprintf.c

//%Header {
/*****************************************************************************
 *
 * File: src/MushRuby/sprintf.c (ruby)
 *
 * This file has been taken the ruby distribution and may have been modified.
 * For more information on the original see http://www.ruby-lang.org/.
 *
 * This file may contain original work and modifications by Andy Southgate.
 * In regard to these the author and his employer (Mushware Limited)
 * irrevocably waive all of their copyright rights vested in this particular
 * version of this file to the furthest extent permitted.  The author and
 * Mushware Limited also irrevocably waive any and all of their intellectual
 * property rights arising from said file and its modification and/or additions
 * that would otherwise restrict the rights of any party to use and/or
 * distribute the use of, the techniques and methods used herein.  A written
 * waiver can be obtained via http://www.mushware.com/.  This waiver does not
 * affect the rights of the original author or authors.
 *
 * This software carries NO WARRANTY of any kind from Andy Southgate or
 * Mushware Limited.
 *
 ****************************************************************************/
//%Header } OnueB7cHe6cRVxP7Wq4qqw
/**********************************************************************

  sprintf.c -

 
  $Date: 2006/04/21 00:10:44 $
  created at: Fri Oct 15 10:39:26 JST 1993

  Copyright (C) 1993-2003 Yukihiro Matsumoto
  Copyright (C) 2000  Network Applied Communication Laboratory, Inc.
  Copyright (C) 2000  Information-technology Promotion Agency, Japan

**********************************************************************/

#include "ruby.h"
#include <ctype.h>
#include <math.h>

#define BIT_DIGITS(N)   (((N)*146)/485 + 1)  /* log2(10) =~ 146/485 */

static void fmt_setup _((char*,int,int,int,int));

static char*
remove_sign_bits(str, base)
    char *str;
    int base;
{
    char *s, *t;
    
    s = t = str;

    if (base == 16) {
      while (*t == 'f') {
          t++;
      }
    }
    else if (base == 8) {
      if (*t == '3') t++;
      while (*t == '7') {
          t++;
      }
    }
    else if (base == 2) {
      while (*t == '1') {
          t++;
      }
    }
    if (t > s) {
      while (*t) *s++ = *t++;
      *s = '\0';
    }

    return str;
}

static char
sign_bits(base, p)
    int base;
    const char *p;
{
    char c = '.';

    switch (base) {
      case 16:
      if (*p == 'X') c = 'F';
      else c = 'f';
      break;
      case 8:
      c = '7'; break;
      case 2:
      c = '1'; break;
    }
    return c;
}

#define FNONE  0
#define FSHARP 1
#define FMINUS 2
#define FPLUS  4
#define FZERO  8
#define FSPACE 16
#define FWIDTH 32
#define FPREC  64

#define CHECK(l) do {\
    while (blen + (l) >= bsiz) {\
      bsiz*=2;\
    }\
    rb_str_resize(result, bsiz);\
    buf = RSTRING(result)->ptr;\
} while (0)

#define PUSH(s, l) do { \
    CHECK(l);\
    memcpy(&buf[blen], s, l);\
    blen += (l);\
} while (0)

#define GETARG() (nextvalue != Qundef ? nextvalue : \
    posarg < 0 ? \
    (rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "unnumbered(%d) mixed with numbered", nextarg), 0) : \
    (posarg = nextarg++, GETNTHARG(posarg)))

#define GETPOSARG(n) (posarg > 0 ? \
    (rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "numbered(%d) after unnumbered(%d)", n, posarg), 0) : \
    ((n < 1) ? (rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "invalid index - %d$", n), 0) : \
             (posarg = -1, GETNTHARG(n))))

#define GETNTHARG(nth) \
    ((nth >= argc) ? (rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "too few arguments"), 0) : argv[nth])

#define GETASTER(val) do { \
    t = p++; \
    n = 0; \
    for (; p < end && ISDIGIT(*p); p++) { \
      int next_n = 10 * n + (*p - '0'); \
        if (next_n / 10 != n) {\
          rb_raise(rb_eArgError, #val " too big"); \
      } \
      n = next_n; \
    } \
    if (p >= end) { \
      rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed format string - %%*[0-9]"); \
    } \
    if (*p == '$') { \
      tmp = GETPOSARG(n); \
    } \
    else { \
      tmp = GETARG(); \
      p = t; \
    } \
    val = NUM2INT(tmp); \
} while (0)


/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     format(format_string [, arguments...] )   => string
 *     sprintf(format_string [, arguments...] )  => string
 *  
 *  Returns the string resulting from applying <i>format_string</i> to
 *  any additional arguments. Within the format string, any characters
 *  other than format sequences are copied to the result. A format
 *  sequence consists of a percent sign, followed by optional flags,
 *  width, and precision indicators, then terminated with a field type
 *  character. The field type controls how the corresponding
 *  <code>sprintf</code> argument is to be interpreted, while the flags
 *  modify that interpretation. The field type characters are listed
 *  in the table at the end of this section. The flag characters are:
 *
 *    Flag     | Applies to   | Meaning
 *    ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
 *    space    | bdeEfgGiouxX | Leave a space at the start of 
 *             |              | positive numbers.
 *    ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
 *    (digit)$ | all          | Specifies the absolute argument number
 *             |              | for this field. Absolute and relative
 *             |              | argument numbers cannot be mixed in a
 *             |              | sprintf string.
 *    ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
 *     #       | beEfgGoxX    | Use an alternative format. For the
 *             |              | conversions `o', `x', `X', and `b', 
 *             |              | prefix the result with ``0'', ``0x'', ``0X'',
 *             |              |  and ``0b'', respectively. For `e',
 *             |              | `E', `f', `g', and 'G', force a decimal
 *             |              | point to be added, even if no digits follow.
 *             |              | For `g' and 'G', do not remove trailing zeros.
 *    ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
 *    +        | bdeEfgGiouxX | Add a leading plus sign to positive numbers.
 *    ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
 *    -        | all          | Left-justify the result of this conversion.
 *    ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
 *    0 (zero) | bdeEfgGiouxX | Pad with zeros, not spaces.
 *    ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
 *    *        | all          | Use the next argument as the field width. 
 *             |              | If negative, left-justify the result. If the
 *             |              | asterisk is followed by a number and a dollar 
 *             |              | sign, use the indicated argument as the width.
 *
 *     
 *  The field width is an optional integer, followed optionally by a
 *  period and a precision. The width specifies the minimum number of
 *  characters that will be written to the result for this field. For
 *  numeric fields, the precision controls the number of decimal places
 *  displayed. For string fields, the precision determines the maximum
 *  number of characters to be copied from the string. (Thus, the format
 *  sequence <code>%10.10s</code> will always contribute exactly ten
 *  characters to the result.)
 *
 *  The field types are:
 *
 *      Field |  Conversion
 *      ------+--------------------------------------------------------------
 *        b   | Convert argument as a binary number.
 *        c   | Argument is the numeric code for a single character.
 *        d   | Convert argument as a decimal number.
 *        E   | Equivalent to `e', but uses an uppercase E to indicate
 *            | the exponent.
 *        e   | Convert floating point argument into exponential notation 
 *            | with one digit before the decimal point. The precision
 *            | determines the number of fractional digits (defaulting to six).
 *        f   | Convert floating point argument as [-]ddd.ddd, 
 *            |  where the precision determines the number of digits after
 *            | the decimal point.
 *        G   | Equivalent to `g', but use an uppercase `E' in exponent form.
 *        g   | Convert a floating point number using exponential form
 *            | if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or
 *            | equal to the precision, or in d.dddd form otherwise.
 *        i   | Identical to `d'.
 *        o   | Convert argument as an octal number.
 *        p   | The valuing of argument.inspect.
 *        s   | Argument is a string to be substituted. If the format
 *            | sequence contains a precision, at most that many characters
 *            | will be copied.
 *        u   | Treat argument as an unsigned decimal number.
 *        X   | Convert argument as a hexadecimal number using uppercase
 *            | letters. Negative numbers will be displayed with two
 *            | leading periods (representing an infinite string of
 *            | leading 'FF's.
 *        x   | Convert argument as a hexadecimal number.
 *            | Negative numbers will be displayed with two
 *            | leading periods (representing an infinite string of
 *            | leading 'ff's.
 *     
 *  Examples:
 *
 *     sprintf("%d %04x", 123, 123)               #=> "123 007b"
 *     sprintf("%08b '%4s'", 123, 123)            #=> "01111011 ' 123'"
 *     sprintf("%1$*2$s %2$d %1$s", "hello", 8)   #=> "   hello 8 hello"
 *     sprintf("%1$*2$s %2$d", "hello", -8)       #=> "hello    -8"
 *     sprintf("%+g:% g:%-g", 1.23, 1.23, 1.23)   #=> "+1.23: 1.23:1.23"
 */

VALUE
rb_f_sprintf(argc, argv)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
{
    VALUE fmt;
    const char *p, *end;
    char *buf;
    int blen, bsiz;
    VALUE result;

    int width, prec, flags = FNONE;
    int nextarg = 1;
    int posarg = 0;
    int tainted = 0;
    VALUE nextvalue;
    VALUE tmp;
    VALUE str;

    fmt = GETNTHARG(0);
    if (OBJ_TAINTED(fmt)) tainted = 1;
    StringValue(fmt);
    fmt = rb_str_new4(fmt);
    p = RSTRING(fmt)->ptr;
    end = p + RSTRING(fmt)->len;
    blen = 0;
    bsiz = 120;
    result = rb_str_buf_new(bsiz);
    buf = RSTRING(result)->ptr;

    for (; p < end; p++) {
      const char *t;
      int n;

      for (t = p; t < end && *t != '%'; t++) ;
      PUSH(p, t - p);
      if (t >= end) {
          /* end of fmt string */
          goto sprint_exit;
      }
      p = t + 1;        /* skip `%' */

      width = prec = -1;
      nextvalue = Qundef;
      retry:
      switch (*p) {
        default:
          if (ISPRINT(*p))
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed format string - %%%c", *p);
          else
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed format string");
          break;

        case ' ':
          flags |= FSPACE;
          p++;
          goto retry;

        case '#':
          flags |= FSHARP;
          p++;
          goto retry;

        case '+':
          flags |= FPLUS;
          p++;
          goto retry;

        case '-':
          flags |= FMINUS;
          p++;
          goto retry;

        case '0':
          flags |= FZERO;
          p++;
          goto retry;

        case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
        case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
          n = 0;
          for (; p < end && ISDIGIT(*p); p++) {
            int next_n = 10 * n + (*p - '0');
            if (next_n / 10 != n) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "width too big");
            }
            n = 10 * n + (*p - '0');
          }
          if (p >= end) {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed format string - %%[0-9]");
          }
          if (*p == '$') {
            if (nextvalue != Qundef) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "value given twice - %d$", n);
            }
            nextvalue = GETPOSARG(n);
            p++;
            goto retry;
          }
          width = n;
          flags |= FWIDTH;
          goto retry;

        case '*':
          if (flags & FWIDTH) {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "width given twice");
          }

          flags |= FWIDTH;
          GETASTER(width);
          if (width < 0) {
            flags |= FMINUS;
            width = -width;
          }
          p++;
          goto retry;

        case '.':
          if (flags & FPREC) {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "precision given twice");
          }
          flags |= FPREC;

          prec = 0;
          p++;
          if (*p == '*') {
            GETASTER(prec);
            if (prec < 0) {   /* ignore negative precision */
                flags &= ~FPREC;
            }
            p++;
            goto retry;
          }

          for (; p < end && ISDIGIT(*p); p++) {
            prec = 10 * prec + (*p - '0');
          }
          if (p >= end) {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed format string - %%.[0-9]");
          }
          goto retry;

        case '\n':
          p--;
        case '\0':
        case '%':
          if (flags != FNONE) {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "illegal format character - %%");
          }
          PUSH("%", 1);
          break;

        case 'c':
          {
            VALUE val = GETARG();
            char c;

            if (!(flags & FMINUS))
                while (--width > 0)
                  PUSH(" ", 1);
            c = NUM2INT(val) & 0xff;
            PUSH(&c, 1);
            while (--width > 0)
                PUSH(" ", 1);
          }
          break;

        case 's':
        case 'p':
          {
            VALUE arg = GETARG();
            long len;

            if (*p == 'p') arg = rb_inspect(arg);
            str = rb_obj_as_string(arg);
            if (OBJ_TAINTED(str)) tainted = 1;
            len = RSTRING(str)->len;
            if (flags&FPREC) {
                if (prec < len) {
                  len = prec;
                }
            }
            if (flags&FWIDTH) {
                if (width > len) {
                  CHECK(width);
                  width -= len;
                  if (!(flags&FMINUS)) {
                      while (width--) {
                        buf[blen++] = ' ';
                      }
                  }
                  memcpy(&buf[blen], RSTRING(str)->ptr, len);
                  blen += len;
                  if (flags&FMINUS) {
                      while (width--) {
                        buf[blen++] = ' ';
                      }
                  }
                  break;
                }
            }
            PUSH(RSTRING(str)->ptr, len);
          }
          break;

        case 'd':
        case 'i':
        case 'o':
        case 'x':
        case 'X':
        case 'b':
        case 'B':
        case 'u':
          {
            volatile VALUE val = GETARG();
            char fbuf[32], nbuf[64], *s, *t;
            char *prefix = 0;
            int sign = 0;
            char sc = 0;
            long v = 0;
            int base, bignum = 0;
            int len, pos;
            VALUE tmp;
                volatile VALUE tmp1;

            switch (*p) {
              case 'd':
              case 'i':
                sign = 1; break;
              case 'o':
              case 'x':
              case 'X':
              case 'b':
              case 'B':
              case 'u':
              default:
                if (flags&(FPLUS|FSPACE)) sign = 1;
                break;
            }
            if (flags & FSHARP) {
                switch (*p) {
                  case 'o':
                  prefix = "0"; break;
                  case 'x':
                  prefix = "0x"; break;
                  case 'X':
                  prefix = "0X"; break;
                  case 'b':
                  prefix = "0b"; break;
                  case 'B':
                  prefix = "0B"; break;
                }
                if (prefix) {
                  width -= strlen(prefix);
                }
            }

            bin_retry:
            switch (TYPE(val)) {
              case T_FLOAT:
                val = rb_dbl2big(RFLOAT(val)->value);
                if (FIXNUM_P(val)) goto bin_retry;
                bignum = 1;
                break;
              case T_STRING:
                val = rb_str_to_inum(val, 0, Qtrue);
                goto bin_retry;
              case T_BIGNUM:
                bignum = 1;
                break;
              case T_FIXNUM:
                v = FIX2LONG(val);
                break;
              default:
                val = rb_Integer(val);
                goto bin_retry;
            }

            switch (*p) {
              case 'o':
                base = 8; break;
              case 'x':
              case 'X':
                base = 16; break;
              case 'b':
              case 'B':
                base = 2; break;
              case 'u':
              case 'd':
              case 'i':
              default:
                base = 10; break;
            }
            if (!bignum) {
                if (base == 2) {
                  val = rb_int2big(v);
                  goto bin_retry;
                }
                if (sign) {
                  char c = *p;
                  if (c == 'i') c = 'd'; /* %d and %i are identical */
                  if (v < 0) {
                      v = -v;
                      sc = '-';
                      width--;
                  }
                  else if (flags & FPLUS) {
                      sc = '+';
                      width--;
                  }
                  else if (flags & FSPACE) {
                      sc = ' ';
                      width--;
                  }
                  sprintf(fbuf, "%%l%c", c);
                  sprintf(nbuf, fbuf, v);
                  s = nbuf;
                  goto format_integer;
                }
                s = nbuf;
                if (v < 0) {
                  if (base == 10) {
                      rb_warning("negative number for %%u specifier");
                  }
                  if (!(flags&(FPREC|FZERO))) {
                      strcpy(s, "..");
                      s += 2;
                  }
                }
                sprintf(fbuf, "%%l%c", *p == 'X' ? 'x' : *p);
                sprintf(s, fbuf, v);
                if (v < 0) {
                  char d = 0;

                  remove_sign_bits(s, base);
                  switch (base) {
                    case 16:
                      d = 'f'; break;
                    case 8:
                      d = '7'; break;
                  }
                  if (d && *s != d) {
                      memmove(s+1, s, strlen(s)+1);
                      *s = d;
                  }
                }
                s = nbuf;
                goto format_integer;
            }

            if (sign) {
                tmp = rb_big2str(val, base);
                s = RSTRING(tmp)->ptr;
                if (s[0] == '-') {
                  s++;
                  sc = '-';
                        width--;
                }
                else if (flags & FPLUS) {
                  sc = '+';
                        width--;
                }
                else if (flags & FSPACE) {
                  sc = ' ';
                        width--;
                }
                goto format_integer;
            }
            if (!RBIGNUM(val)->sign) {
                val = rb_big_clone(val);
                rb_big_2comp(val);
            }
            tmp1 = tmp = rb_big2str(val, base);
            s = RSTRING(tmp)->ptr;
            if (*s == '-') {
                if (base == 10) {
                  rb_warning("negative number for %%u specifier");
                  s++;
                }
                else {
                  remove_sign_bits(++s, base);
                  tmp = rb_str_new(0, 3+strlen(s));
                  t = RSTRING(tmp)->ptr;
                  if (!(flags&(FPREC|FZERO))) {
                      strcpy(t, "..");
                      t += 2;
                  }
                  switch (base) {
                    case 16:
                      if (s[0] != 'f') strcpy(t++, "f"); break;
                    case 8:
                      if (s[0] != '7') strcpy(t++, "7"); break;
                    case 2:
                      if (s[0] != '1') strcpy(t++, "1"); break;
                  }
                  strcpy(t, s);
                  bignum = 2;
                }
            }
            s = RSTRING(tmp)->ptr;

            format_integer:
            pos = -1;
            len = strlen(s);

            if (*p == 'X') {
                char *pp = s;
                while (*pp) {
                  *pp = toupper(*pp);
                  pp++;
                }
            }
            if ((flags&(FZERO|FPREC)) == FZERO) {
                prec = width;
                width = 0;
            }
            else {
                if (prec < len) prec = len;
                width -= prec;
            }
            if (!(flags&FMINUS)) {
                CHECK(width);
                while (width-- > 0) {
                  buf[blen++] = ' ';
                }
            }
            if (sc) PUSH(&sc, 1);
            if (prefix) {
                int plen = strlen(prefix);
                PUSH(prefix, plen);
            }
            CHECK(prec - len);
            if (!bignum && v < 0) {
                char c = sign_bits(base, p);
                while (len < prec--) {
                  buf[blen++] = c;
                }
            }
            else {
                char c;

                if (bignum && !RBIGNUM(val)->sign)
                  c = sign_bits(base, p);
                else
                  c = '0';
                while (len < prec--) {
                  buf[blen++] = c;
                }
            }
            PUSH(s, len);
            CHECK(width);
            while (width-- > 0) {
                buf[blen++] = ' ';
            }
          }
          break;

        case 'f':
        case 'g':
        case 'G':
        case 'e':
        case 'E':
          {
            VALUE val = GETARG();
            double fval;
            int i, need = 6;
            char fbuf[32];

            fval = RFLOAT(rb_Float(val))->value;
#if defined(_WIN32) && !defined(__BORLANDC__)
            if (isnan(fval) || isinf(fval)) {
                char *expr;

                if  (isnan(fval)) {
                  expr = "NaN";
                }
                else {
                  expr = "Inf";
                }
                need = strlen(expr);
                if ((!isnan(fval) && fval < 0.0) || (flags & FPLUS))
                  need++;
                if ((flags & FWIDTH) && need < width)
                  need = width;

                CHECK(need);
                sprintf(&buf[blen], "%*s", need, "");
                if (flags & FMINUS) {
                  if (!isnan(fval) && fval < 0.0)
                      buf[blen++] = '-';
                  else if (flags & FPLUS)
                      buf[blen++] = '+';
                  else if (flags & FSPACE)
                      blen++;
                  strncpy(&buf[blen], expr, strlen(expr));
                }
                else if (flags & FZERO) {
                  if (!isnan(fval) && fval < 0.0) {
                      buf[blen++] = '-';
                      need--;
                  }
                  else if (flags & FPLUS) {
                      buf[blen++] = '+';
                      need--;
                  }
                  else if (flags & FSPACE) {
                      blen++;
                      need--;
                  }
                  while (need-- - strlen(expr) > 0) {
                      buf[blen++] = '0';
                  }
                  strncpy(&buf[blen], expr, strlen(expr));
                }
                else {
                  if (!isnan(fval) && fval < 0.0)
                      buf[blen + need - strlen(expr) - 1] = '-';
                  else if (flags & FPLUS)
                      buf[blen + need - strlen(expr) - 1] = '+';
                  strncpy(&buf[blen + need - strlen(expr)], expr,
                        strlen(expr));
                }
                blen += strlen(&buf[blen]);
                break;
            }
#endif      /* defined(_WIN32) && !defined(__BORLANDC__) */
            fmt_setup(fbuf, *p, flags, width, prec);
            need = 0;
            if (*p != 'e' && *p != 'E') {
                i = INT_MIN;
                frexp(fval, &i);
                if (i > 0)
                  need = BIT_DIGITS(i);
            }
            need += (flags&FPREC) ? prec : 6;
            if ((flags&FWIDTH) && need < width)
                need = width;
            need += 20;

            CHECK(need);
            sprintf(&buf[blen], fbuf, fval);
            blen += strlen(&buf[blen]);
          }
          break;
      }
      flags = FNONE;
    }

  sprint_exit:
    /* XXX - We cannot validiate the number of arguments if (digit)$ style used.
     */
    if (posarg >= 0 && nextarg < argc) {
      const char *mesg = "too many arguments for format string";
      if (RTEST(ruby_debug)) rb_raise(rb_eArgError, mesg);
      if (RTEST(ruby_verbose)) rb_warn(mesg);
    }
    rb_str_resize(result, blen);

    if (tainted) OBJ_TAINT(result);
    return result;
}

static void
fmt_setup(buf, c, flags, width, prec)
    char *buf;
    int c;
    int flags, width, prec;
{
    *buf++ = '%';
    if (flags & FSHARP) *buf++ = '#';
    if (flags & FPLUS)  *buf++ = '+';
    if (flags & FMINUS) *buf++ = '-';
    if (flags & FZERO)  *buf++ = '0';
    if (flags & FSPACE) *buf++ = ' ';

    if (flags & FWIDTH) {
      sprintf(buf, "%d", width);
      buf += strlen(buf);
    }

    if (flags & FPREC) {
      sprintf(buf, ".%d", prec);
      buf += strlen(buf);
    }

    *buf++ = c;
    *buf = '\0';
}

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